Day 2 :
Wipro Technologies, USA
- Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry | Pharmacy Education and Practice
Location: Mercure Melbourne Albert Park
Ronnell John R Gonzales is from Philippines.
Natural colorants are used in the coloration of food, handicraft items, toys, textiles and in leather processing. Many of the color-yielding plants are used as medicines in various traditional medicinal systems. Interest for natural colorants has increased dramatically worldwide due to the awareness of possible toxicity that can be caused by modern synthetic dyes. Synthetic colors have been banned in certain countries due to allergic and carcinogenic symptoms that they can cause. More eco-friendly colorants are now being developed to replace synthetic dyes which can be toxic and hazardous to health. Thus, the researchers wanted to study natural colorants from three botanical sources namely, Areca carechu, Bixa orellana and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis as possible alternative for the commercially used Food, Drug and Cosmetic colorant, Allura Red. UV-Vis Spectrometry was used to measure the transmittance of the samples which were used to obtain their CIELAB values and to compare the colorants quantitatively. Natural colorant from Areca catechu, Bixa orellana, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mean L* values were 21.6097, 44.3664 and 19.0708 respectively; mean a* values were 89.2146, 65.3665 and 69.7741 respectively; and mean b* values were 99.0016, 110.3789 and 21.6674 respectively. These results revealed that the natural colorants from Areca catechu, Bixa orellana, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis all fall within the dark, red and yellow spectra of colors. Using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), it was found out that both the natural colorants from A. catechu and B. orellana yielded p-values of 0.042 and 0.024 respectively. These are both lower than the level of significance at µ 0.05 which means that there is a significant difference between the combined CIELAB values for color characterization of the natural colorants obtained from A. catechu and B. orellana to that of Allura Red. Thus it can be inferred that they can’t be utilized and further studied as possible alternative colorants to Allura Red. Only H. rosa-sinensis yielded a p-value of 0.641 that is greater than the level of significance at µ 0.05. This means that there is no significant difference between the combined CIELAB values for color characterization of the natural colorant obtained from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis to that of the standard, Allura Red making it a potential alternative. It can also be inferred through such data that among the three natural colorants that were analyzed in this study, the natural colorant from H. rosa-sinensis is the closest to Allura Red in term of combined color characteristics.
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Cao Donghua is a PhD candidate from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Her Research Interest lies at the crossroads of chemistry and biology, and endeavors to discover novel active natural products from medicinal plant. She has published 3 papers in reputed journals
Meliaceous limonoids, characteristic chemical markers of the Meliaceae family, are natural products with both fascinating structures and potential bioactivities that have attracted interest from both natural products chemists and synthetic chemists in the past half century. As part of a continuing search for structurally interesting and biologically important limonoids from the Meliaceae family, the leaves and twigs of Trichilia sinensis collected from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province of China were investigated. Trichilia sinensis Bentv, a shrub, is native to the south of China and Vietnam, and it has traditional applications for the treatment of several diseases such as abdominal pain caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, chronic osteomyelitis, scabies, and eczema in folk medicine. The three novel rearranged mexicanolide-type limonoids (Trichiliasinenoids A-C) with an unprecedented C-29-C-7 connecting carbon skeleton formed by migration of C-7 from C-6 to C-29 of a mexicanolide-type limonoid precursor were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Trichilia sinensis. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute conﬁgurations were determined by X-ray crystallography and CD calculation. A possible biosynthetic pathway of Trichiliasinenoids A was also proposed. The three new limonoids were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human myeloid leukaemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cell lines by MTS assay. Trichiliasinenoid B showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells, SMMC-7721 with an IC50 value of 5.2 mM and 30.6 mM, respectively, whereas other limonoids were inactive and comparable to the cisplatin positive control (IC50: 1.1–17.3 m M).
Ewha Womans University College of Pharmacy, South Korea
Ji Hyun Park is working in Ewha Womans University College of Pharmacy at Seoul in South Korea.
Objective: This study aimed to identify the incidence of risk factors and the utilization of thromboprophylaxis for perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing spine surgery using National Health Insurance claims data in Korea.
Methods: The incidence of VTE in adult patients with spine surgery was extracted from 2014 National Inpatient Sample dataset provided by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA-NIS-2014), a sample of all patients using medical services in Korea. The association of patient and surgery procedure variables, including VTE prophylaxis were determined with multivariable logistic regression
Results: In 2014, total incidence of VTE was found to be 1.5% (314) among 20,900 spine surgeries in Korea. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified several independent predictors of VTE, including age over 80, length of stay (over 10 days), vein diseases, cancer, prolonged surgery (over 2 hours), perioperative blood transfusion (over 2 liters), cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases. Only 5.7% of total spine surgeries is provided with VTE prophylaxis.
Conclusion: Patients undergoing spine surgery in Korea represent a population at a higher risk for VTE, however, relatively less concerned by care providers. Understanding the risk factors associated with perioperative VTE in spine surgery may provide an opportunity for early intervention and risk stratification in this population.
Anteneh Assefa Kebede has completed his MSc in Pharmaceutics from Addis Ababa University, the premium university in the country, and B.Pharm from University of Gondar, College of Medical Sciences. He is now serving as a lecturer in the department of Pharmacy, college of Medical and Health Sciences, Wachemo University, which is a government University. Currently he is serving as the dean of the school of Pharmacy. The two names mentioned above are my supervising professors during the research work.
Starch is the most commonly used pharmaceutical disintegrant in tablet formulations. The aim of the present study was to assess the disintegrant property of Ethiopian potato (Plectranthus edulis) starch in comparison to Irish potato starch and its optimization in paracetamol tablets formulations - prepared by wet granulation method. Tablet properties such as crushing strength, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate of the tablets were studied for both comparison and optimization studies. The results of comparative study showed that the properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with both starches as disintegrants were affected by their concentration and the compression force (CF); and P. edulis starch exhibited a favorably comparable disintegrant property with Irish potato starch in paracetamol tablet formulations. The study also showed that the CF and disintegrant concentration had significantly affected the response variables (i.e., the crushing strength, friability and disintegration time); hence, these factors were further optimized using central composite statistical design. The optimal conditions were obtained at a CF of 14.40 KN and disintegrant concentration of 5.96%. Under these conditions, the crushing strength, friability and disintegration time were 101.8 KN, 0.3% and 1.34 min, respectively. These values closely matched with the predicted values of the responses at the aforementioned levels of the factors. Thus, the results of this study indicated that Ethiopian potato (P. edulis) can be used as an alternative source of starch for its application as a disintegrant in the tablet formulations.