Day 3 :
- Track 3 & 17: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry & Nutraceuticals
Track 15 & 16: Pharma Compliance & Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems
Manipur University, India
Warjeet S Laitonjam is working at department of chemistry in Manipur University near Canchipur, Imphal in Manipur, India.
Since ancient times, plants have been an important source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literatures mentioned the use of plants in the treatment of various human ailments. North-east India is rich of its flora and fauna; the flora of this region includes aromatic and medicinal plants with a number of bioactive compounds. As is the case with other diseases, medicinal plants have been used since ancient times to treat and manage diabetes mellitus in traditional medical systems of many cultures throughout the world. Currently, medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus, especially in developing countries, where many people do not have access to conventional anti-diabetic therapies Before the coming of the modern pharmacological medicines, the people of the region are using medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Even today, people not only in the rural areas but those living in the urban areas are also using these herbal medicines, and give first preference to herbal treatments by consulting the medicine men.
A report of bioactive compounds isolated from some commonly used medicinal plants of North East India in the indigenous system of health care as anti-diabetics will be highlighted. Rapid advances in the field of diabetes have resulted in the discovery of numerous chemotherapeutic agents till date. However, most of these drugs result in severe side effects causing physical and mental trauma to patients. In order to eliminate the side effects, search for better and safer drugs has been ongoing for several decades, which has resulted in the discovery of anti-diabetic properties of many phytochemicals. On the basis of studies, it was found that a variety of phytochemicals possess hypoglycemic activity. However, the majority of plants with blood glucose lowering activity appear to contain polysaccharides, glycosides and flavonoids.
To study anti-diabetic potential of medicinal plants, firstly, plants are collected (usually selected on the basis of information obtained from traditional healers and herbalists), extracted and screened for hypoglycemic activity using either in vitro or in vivo bioassay techniques. Secondly, active ingredients are isolated and identified from plants showing hypoglycemic effects during the screening tests. Thirdly, the blood glucose lowering mechanism of action of the crude plant extract and active ingredients is investigated. Fourthly, clinical trials are conducted on the crude plant extract or isolated active ingredients.
University of Gloucestershire, UK
Khalid Al Kubaisi is a post-gradute researcher in his final year of PhD program in Public Health from Gloucestershire University, UK. He awarded his master degree, Excellent with First Honours, in Public Health (MPH) from Hamadan bin Mohamed Smart University, Dubai during the academic year 2010- 2012. He attended his under graduate school at the University of Baghdad where he received his Bachelor degree in Science of Pharmacy in 1996. He spent ten years working as a pharmacist in UAE. His research’s interest is in self-medication practice and in the use of non-prescription drugs by university’s students. For example, investigating students’’ behavior towards reading the drug information leaflets. Recently, he developed and evaluated an Educational Intervention designed for modifying university students’ practice, knowledge, awareness and attitude in favor of responsible self-medication.
There is a high prevalence of Self-medication practices among university students in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Although Over the Counter (OTC) drugs does not need prescription but they are safe only when used with proper guidance and with pharmacist consultation. Improper use of Oral Non-Prescription Drugs (ONPD) leads to carelessness and which may further leads to serious consequences. The aim of this research is to identify the common practices among university students using ONPD and its consequences.
A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted from January to April 2014, among 2875 students in three randomly selected UAE universities. A structured and validated questionnaire was used to collect the responses of the students. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data.
A majority of the participants were females (76.3%). The most common cause of using ONPD was found to be minor illness (78.7%). Analgesics/Antipyretics were the common category of ONPD among the students. (84.9%). More than one-third of participants (34.1%; 461 of 1348) had used more than one drug for treating a single symptom (polypharmacy). The major risk associated with the ONPD users were found to be belief of effectiveness of ONPD(OR = 0.348, 95% CI: .161-0.916, p<0.04); frequency of use behavior (OR = 2.368, 95% CI: 1.615-3.472, p<0.001); dose-seeking behavior (OR = 2.368, 95% CI: 1.615-3.472, p<0.00), informal source of ONPD information(OR = 1.528, 95% CI: 1.096-2.130, p<0.02) and self-care orientation(OR = 2.331, 95% CI: 1.602-3.392, p<0.001).
The irresponsible behaviour of self-medication is high among university students in UAE. There is a need for an educational intervention to motivate students to be use non-prescription drugs more wisely.
1. University of the Philippines Manila, Philippines 2. United Laboratories Inc., Philippines
Paul Jazon I Sarne, the primary author of the study, graduated BS industrial Pharmacy from the University of the Philippines, Manila. He is currently working in United Laboratories Inc. as a researcher of natural products. This study is in cooperation with his groupmates as a requirement in their class on Alkaloids and Peptides under the program MS Pharmacy- Pharmaceutical Chemistry track: Dhennis T. Verzosa, Jhulez Anthony B. Dayrit, and Thea Frances Ruth N. Gonzales. The advisers of the study: Raymund B. Yu, MS & Levi-letlet Larcia, MS specialize in pharmaceutical chemistry and biochemistry; while Ronald R. Matias, PhD, Director of the Biological Sciences Department of United Laboratories, Inc., specializes in cell and molecular biology.
Alkaloidal extracts from Nephelium lappaceum L. (Rambutan) were investigated for selective anti-Staphylococcal and anti-MRSA activities. Ethanolic extracts of the pericarp, seeds and leaves were extracted for alkaloids (through a modified Stas-Otto Method I) and had undergone bioassay-guided fractionation via C18 SPE. Resazurin assays were done to determine MIC on clinically isolated Staphylococcus aureus and an MRSA variant. It was also used to determine safety on MDCK cell line (a non-cancerous mammalian cell line). Selectivity Index (SI), a ratio of the MDCK IC50 to MIC, was used as the measure of safety. The Ethanolic Pericarp Extract (EPE) was potently inhibitory to both S. aureus and MRSA, but was not selective (Sa & MRSA MIC=500 µg/mL, SI= 0.86). The alkaloid extract had similar MIC against MRSA but was more selective (Palk-B, SI> 2.00), while the third fraction of the alkaloidal extract had greatly improved antibacterial effect and selectivity (PB-f3, Sa & MRSA MIC=125 µg/mL, SI= 5.22). Results suggest the presence of a potent and selective anti-staphylococcal agent in PB-f3, which is also effective against MRSA.
NSHM College of Pharmaceutical Technology, India
Subhasis Chakrabarty completed his M.Pharm in department of Pharmaceutics from West Bengal University of Technology in 2014. He is presently pursuing PhD in NSHM College of Pharmaceutical Technology under DST sponsored project. He has about 2 years of industrial experience.
Recently, the research has been focused on noninvasive methods for frequent clinical and therapeutic drug monitoring which could avoid blood sampling and improve patient compliance. Transdermal reverse iontophoresis offers a noninvasive tool for clinical and therapeutic monitoring of drug and indigenous molecules. We investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulphate in receiver fluid (0-4%w/v) on reverse iontophoretic extraction of gabapentin. These experiments were carried out in custom made diffusion cell for a period of 4 h using pig ear skin. The extracted drug was analyzed by HPLC method. With the use of different concentration of sodium lauryl sulphate (2, 3, 4%w/v) in receiver fluid significantly increased the transport of drug and enhancement was 2.33, 1.76, and 1.10 folds respectively in anode chamber compared to the without sodium lauryl sulphate. Similarly, use of different concentration of sodium lauryl sulphate (2, 3, 4%w/v) in receiver fluid significantly increased the transport of drug and enhancement was 2.26, 1.61, and 1.37 folds respectively in cathode chamber compared to the without sodium lauryl sulphate. The maximum cumulative extraction was obtained with the 2% w/v sodium lauryl sulphate in both anodal and cathodal chamber. Reverse iontophoresis in conjugation with permeation enhancer had a significant synergistic effect in terms of extraction of drug across skin.